24. "But God will show his special mercy to whom He will." (2:99.)
C. ~ Does God show His special mercy to those who do not deserve it? If He does, He works great mischief, for all men will become indifferent to the practice of virtue. No one will then lead a virtuous life and hate sin, since His mercy depends upon His (arbitrary) will and not upon one's deeds.
Again the reference of Swami ji is incorrect. The correct reference is 2:105. In this Ayat there is nothing to be doubted, still Dayanandji, on account of the bad habit which he had got, raised unnecessary doubts like the one raised by him on this Ayat; The subject on which he has raised a doubt here is also found in the books regarded by Dayanandji as his authorities. Thus it follows that he was either ignorant of the real facts or that he was a fanatic. On page 71 of the Satyartha Prakash [English Edition] he regards Kathopanishada as an authority. The same Kathopanishad mentions in chapter 2; verse 23 the following:
"That Self, cannot be gained by the Veda, nor by understanding, nor by much learning. He whom the Self chooses, by him the Self can be gained. The Self chooses him (his body) as his own."
Consequently the doubt 'Does God show His special mercy to those who do not deserve it? If He does, He works great mischief' which has been raised on the Qur'an applies with equal force to Kathopanishad quoted above.
Anyway, this was only a quick counter example from your own scriptures. The descriptive reply is that it is true that God chooses whom He will, but this choice is based on His Perfect Wisdom. If only Swami ji had taken into account the context in which this verse appears, he would have not have raised this doubt. The section is speaking about the substitution of the Jews as a nation from the position of the carriers of God's Message and bestowing this responsiblity upon the Arabs. For this let me quote the complete verse in question,
"It is never the wish of those without faith among the People of the Book, nor of the Pagans, that anything good should come down to you from your Lord. But Allah will choose for His special Mercy whom He will, for Allah is Lord of grace abounding."
The Jews had made religion a racial religion, thinking themselves to be the Chosen People of God or children of God and other nations as inferior. Exactly like the Aryas considered themselves to be superior to the non-Aryas. The Jews on one hand could not stand the fact that Divine revelation could be granted by God to a non Jew just as Vedic followers believe that revelation of God only came to the Aryan people. Thus, in this context, God Almighty is refuting these false ideas by revealing that His Grace and Mercy (i.e. Divine Guidance) is for anyone whom He chooses. Given this background there is no room to claim that this Mercy of God is arbitrary. Rather it is based on perfect Wisdom of God.
Let us also see the random choices of Vedic God. Rigveda 10/125/5 quotes the words of Vak, the daughter of Rishi Ambhrina as follows
अहमेव सवयमिदं वदामि जुष्टं देवेभिरुतमानुषेभिः |
यं कामये तं-तमुग्रं कर्णोमि तम्ब्रह्माणं तं रषिं तं सुमेधाम ||
"I verily of myself declare this which is approved of both gods and men; whomesoever I will, I render formidable, I make him a Brahmin, a Rishi or a Sage."
Now the question is what kind of relation does Vak enjoy with the Vedic God that he has given her authority to make whomsoever she pleases as a Brahmin, a Rishi or a Sage? Also refer to Nirukt 7:2. Before objecting to the Qur'an, Swami ji should have objected to this mantra of Rigveda. It appears that every time Dayanand ji objected to the Qur'an he forgot his own books.
The above mantra from Rigveda 10/125/5 is translated by Arya Samaji scholar and exegete of the four Vedas, Pandit Jaydev Sharma as follows,
English Translation: God says, "Whomsoever I will, I make powerful. Whosoever I wish I make a learned person and whomsoever I will I make a Rishi and whomsoever I will I grant intelligence, wealth and power."
Now can any follower of Dayanand Ji kindly explain why their God is arbitrarily making people powerful, learned, intelligent and wealthy? The question goes back to the Vedic followers "Does Vedic God show His special mercy to those who do not deserve it? If He does, He works great mischief, for all men will become indifferent to the practice of virtue. No one will then lead a virtuous life and hate sin, since His mercy depends upon His (arbitrary) will and not upon one's deeds."